In recent years Jane Vella has become a renowned and respected figure in the adult teaching field. Vella's 12 Principles for Adult Learners, spelled out in her known book Learning to Listen, Learning to Teach: The Power of Dialogue in Educating Adults, are highly regarded in adult education. Below are Vella's 12 Principles.
* Needs assessment: participation of the learners in naming what is to be learned.
* Safety in the environment and the process. We create a context for learning. That context can be made safe.
* Sound relationships between teacher and learner and among learners.
* Sequence of content and reinforcement.
* Praxis: action with reflection or learning by doing.
* Respect for learners as decision makers.
* Ideas, feelings, and actions: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects of learning.
* Immediacy of the learning.
* Clear roles and role development.
* Teamwork and use of small groups.
* Engagement of the learners in what they are learning.
* Accountability: how do they know they know?
These 12 Principles are actually quite helpful towards working with any learners in higher education.